A cancerous tumour developing from the glandular component of any organ (particularly the prostate or kidney).
A drug used to relieve pain.
A benign tumour of the kidney which arises from blood vessels and fat; it may, if it grows large enough, rupture and cause bleeding into or around the kidney.
A drug which reduces inflammation and helps to relieve pain; often used to treat prostatitis & the pain of kidney stones.
The complete absence of sperms in ejaculated semen; one cause of male-factor infertility. Usually due to failure of production of sperms by the testis or to obstruction of the tubing along which sperms normally pass.
Inflammation of the foreskin or the tip of the penis.
The midline, lower abdominal organ which stores urine prior to its expulsion via the urethra.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign enlargement of the prostate gland, invariably seen with increasing age.
A type of radiotherapy where radioactive seeds are implanted directly into an organ, usually the prostate gland.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans; a scarring disease of the foreskin, of unknown cause, which results in a tight foreskin.
The commonest constituent of kidney stones and the type of stone which is most prone to recur.
A stone, usually in the kidney or ureter, but may also occur on the prostate or bladder.
The outermost part of the collecting system of the kidney where urine is first released for excretion.
A rubberised or silicone tube passed into a hollow organ (usually the bladder) to drain its contents.
The use of drugs to treat cancer.
A deformity of the penis which results in a bending on erection.
Inflammation of the internal lining of the bladder.
Surgical removal of the foreskin, usually performed for phimosis.
Computerised tomography; a form of X-ray where slices are taken through the body to produce images at different levels.
Surgical removal of the bladder, usually for invasive cancer.
Prolapse of the bladder into the vagina.
An X-ray of the bladder where dye is inserted into the bladder using a catheter.
Inspection of the bladder using a telescope (either flexible or rigid) with an attached light source to illuminate the interior of the bladder.
The study of individual cells, usually in the urine, to identify malignancy or other disorders.
Stretching or widening of an opening, usually the urethra or neck of the bladder.
An abnormal pouch leading off the cavity of a hollow organ; most commonly seen in the bladder.
Digital rectal examination; usually to feel the prostate gland.
Painful passage of urine.
Blocking the artery to an organ by introducing foam, coils or gel under X-ray control using a small catheter placed in the artery.
Incontinence of urine at night usually considered synonymous with bedwetting.
The sperm-carrying mechanism lying behind the testis which carries sperms from the testis to the vas deferens during ejaculation.
Inflammation / infection of the epididymis, often involving the testis as well (epididymo-orchitis).
Impotence; the inability to obtain or maintain an erection sufficient for penetration and the satisfaction of both sexual partners.
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy; shockwaves generated in water, focussed and fired through the body to fragment stones in the kidney or ureter.
Leakage of urine or surgical irrigation fluid outside the urinary tract.
A congenital condition where the bladder remains on the surface of the lower abdomen open to the outside.
Passing urine too often, usually during the day.
Blood in the semen during ejaculation.
Blood in the urine.
An abnormal collection of fluid in the naturally-occurring sac which surrounds the testicle.
Having to wait an abnormally long time for the flow of urine to start.
Involuntary leakage of urine.lating the natural immune response.
Involuntary leakage of urine
Intravenous urogram; an X-ray of the kidneys, ureters and bladder performed using an injection of dye into a vein in the arm.
One of two paired organs (normally) which lie at the back of the abdomen, in front of the lower ribs, and filter the blood to produce urine.
Light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation; an energy source for performing some types of urological surgery.
A telescope with a light source and camera attached which is inserted into the abdominal cavity (through a small incision) to perform ‘keyhole’ surgery.
Wearing away of a stone; usually synonymous with ESWL.
Crushing of a stone, usually in the bladder, to reduce it to fragments small enough to be passed spontaneously or removed through an endoscope.
Surgical removal of lymph nodes to determine whether they are involved with cancer.
A secondary tumour (remote from the original cancer) which has arisen by spread through the blood, the lymph system or by direct invasion.
Magnetic resonance imaging; a means of producing cross-sectional images of the body to characterise tissues by the way the electrons in the tissue move in response to a strong magnetic field.
The microscopic filtering unit in the kidney which filters water and waste products from the blood.
Abnormal passage of urine at night.
Tightness of the foreskin, either due to a scarring disease or as a result of a congenital abnormality.
Retraction of a tight foreskin which becomes “stuck” due to an inability to return it to its original position covering the head of the penis.
Over-production of urine, usually at night; often occurs in the elderly due to poor water handling ability with increasing age.
A chestnut-sized organ lying at the bottom of the bladder which produces chemicals to nourish sperms and facilitate their transport to the female uterus.
Infection or inflammation of the prostate gland.
An artificial implant used to replace any part of the body (e.g. a testicle).
Prostate-specific antigen; a chemical released into the bloodstream by the prostate gland which may be raised in men with prostate cancer.
A sac lying behind the prostate gland which stores seminal fluid and sperms in preparation for ejaculation.
The main male hormone produced mainly by the testicles (and by the adrenal glands).
A staging system for cancer which describes the extent of the primary tumour (T), the lymph nodes (N) and metastases (M).
Transitional cell carcinoma
A malignant (cancerous) tumour arising from the internal lining of the urinary tract.
Transurethral resection, usually of the prostate gland (TURP) or of a tumour in the bladder (TURBT).
High-frequency sound waves used to reflect off tissues to determine their nature.
The thin, muscular tube which propels urine down from the kidneys to the bladder.
Inspection of the ureter (and / or kidney) using a telescope (either flexible or rigid) with an attached light source passed into the bladder and up the ureter towards the kidney.
The tube through which urine passes to the outside of the body from the bladder.
A sudden, irresistible desire to pass urine.
An abnormal collection of varicose veins above the testicle, usually on the left side.
A muscular tube which carries sperm from the epididymis into the urethra during ejaculation of semen.